This story is conventional. However he hardly died broke. He just never was a spender. The other issue is that we suspect that he quit fighting the finance guys and won the support of the military and then essentially shut up. That would certainly explain their immediate interest in disappearing his papers on his death. That was no whim of the moment.
We largely understand what he was doing. His claims were all plausible and demonstrated. Like any scientist, he was limited by the tools and materials of the day. Thus the lack of useful permanent magnets made it hard to optimize his modulator..
Tesla – the Forgotten Genius
by Bruce Cathie
“Some day I will harness Niagara Falls.” – Tesla
“Some day I will harness Niagara Falls.” – Tesla
(Nexus Illuminati) – THIS WAS THE STATEMENT MADE BY THE greatest electrical genius that ever lived, to one of his fellow students, in Budapest, in 1882. Nikola Tesla, born 9 July 1856, was then aged twenty-five and about to commence a lifetime career in the advancement of electrical knowledge which was to transform the world.
If it were not for this one man, almost all modern-day electrical devices would not exist. It therefore seems strange that Tesla’s name is known to so very few students in our universities. Many times I have mentioned Tesla to groups of students, during discussions, and have been met with a blank stare, and the question — “Who is Tesla?”
His birthplace was a small village called Smiijan in the country now called Yugoslavia. His father was a minister in the local church. His mother was illiterate, but was known in the village as one who had a clever and inventive mind. It is said that she invented a considerable number of labor saving devices, which could be used in the home. In later years Tesla stated that he inherited his inventive genius from his mother.
In one stupendous lifetime he gave us the whole foundation upon which to build the industrial empires of the world. It was he who invented the alternating-current motors that power every factory and production centre. He that designed the transmission systems that enabled power to be sent out over vast areas of countryside from a central generating source; the mass production systems and robot control that freed man from the slavery of labor; the basis for radio and radar, and remote control by wireless; modern lighting systems by use of high-frequency currents. The list is endless. No limit has been found to the electronic marvels which can be produced from the basic discoveries which issued from this one fertile mind. The whole world owes Tesla its future — and he has been forgotten, because he was a man who lived before his time.
Tesla was one of five children and even at an early age showed signs of a lively mind. He found that in many things he could surpass other boys of his own age, and this tended to isolate him from his contemporaries. He found it hard to find others to share in his interests and his intellectual attainments were often in advance of his years. Nevertheless, it seems that he still got up to all the other foolish escapades that young boys find to fill in their time – myself included.
One of the more dangerous ones was trying to emulate a bird. He discovered that when he breathed deeply he began to feel very light and buoyant. He considered that this discovery, plus the application of daring and an old umbrella, should suffice to free him from the pull of gravity and allow him to sail through the air with a certain amount of grace and dignity. He climbed up on the roof of a local barn with the trusty old umbrella, breathed a few deep breaths and jumped off into space. The umbrella, not being aerodynamically designed, folded inside out and Tesla carried out a very undignified plummet to the ground. This cost him six weeks in bed, and much embarrassment.
His next accomplishment was the invention of a special frog-catching hook which was immediately copied by all his friends and helped to ensure the demise of most of the frogs in the village pond. Then followed a series of gadgets attractive to small boys, which included very efficient blowguns and popguns the size of small howitzers. Damage to local property caused the sudden end to the production of such warlike weapons, and punishment administered to the end of Tesla.
At the advanced age of nine years he con-structured his first motor. The prime mover of this wondrous machine was a formation of sixteen may-bugs. I suppose in a way they could have been termed galley bugs, as they had to perform in much the same way as the galley slaves of old to produce forward movement to the parts of Tesla’s machine. The design was quite ingenious. He glued two long thin bits of wood together to form a cross, much like the arms of a windmill. Another thin spindle was attached to this with a very small pulley glued to it.
This was connected by a belt made from cotton to a larger pulley on another thin spindle. The engines (or maybugs) were then glued four abreast, facing forward, on each of the four arms. The poor bugs, no doubt dismayed at such cavalier treatment, beat their wings at panic speed and turned the windmill at a surprising rate. It was Tesla’s intention to add more bugs, and thus more power to this truly remarkable machine, but a young friend decided to eat his jarful of spare bugs. This nearly caused Tesla to throw up, and he ended up destroying his invention in disgust.
The first stage of his schooling ended in 1870, when he was fourteen. The college he attended was called the Real Gymnasium, at Gospic. Already he was showing that he was well above the average in his abilities. He continued his studies at the higher Real Gymnasium, completing the full four-year course in three years. It was at this time that he became fascinated with physics and electrical experimentation and made the decision to devote his life to electricity. His father was anxious for him to enter the ministry and make a career of the church, but finally relented and promised Nicola that he would not prevent him from having his wish.
The boy had overworked himself so much with his studies that he had weakened his body and been attacked, first by malaria then a severe bout of cholera. When nearly at death’s door he whispered to his father, “I will get well again if you will let me study electrical engineering.” He was promised by his father that he would attend the most advanced engineering school in the world. Tesla was nineteen when he began his studies in electrical engineering at the Polytechnic Institute at Gratz, Austria.
It was at the Institute that particular insights into the mysteries of electricity by Tesla first began to show themselves. A Professor Poeschl was demonstrating a gramme machine that could be used as either a dynamo or a motor. It was run by direct current and suffered a great loss of efficiency due to sparking at the commutator. (The commutator was necessary in all direct current machines to change the flow of electricity at the correct instant to obtain rotary motion.)
An argument developed between the professor and Tesla as to the design of the machine and the necessity to use direct current. Why cannot alternating current be used, suggested Tesla? This would eliminate the need for commutators and thus increase efficiency. The alternating current produced by the dynamos could be fed direct to the motors without the use of the reversing mechanisms.
The professor set up a special set of experiments to prove to Tesla that his idea was completely impractical and made the statement:
“Mr. Tesla will accomplish great things, but he certainly will never do this. It would be equivalent to converting a steady pulling force like gravity into rotary effort. It is a perpetual motion scheme, an impossible idea.”
Tesla had no answer to this at the time, but instinct told him he was right and that some day in the future he would create such a machine. He continued his studies at the University of Prague concentrating on mathematics and physics. Always in the back of his mind was the idea of the alternating-current motor, and in his imagination he contemplated many different methods of building such a device, each time to fail.
On leaving the university Tesla obtained a position with the central telegraph office in Budapest. His genius for invention was not long in being noticed and in 1881 he was placed in charge of the new telephone exchange. It was while working for this company that he had the first flash of inspiration that was to rocket him to short-lived fame.
He was walking with a friend late in the afternoon in the city park of Budapest. It was February 1882, and a glorious day. Tesla was in a particularly happy frame of mind and gave vent to his joy by prancing about, and reciting poetry. Suddenly, he stopped in his tracks and exclaimed, “Watch me! Watch me reverse it.” He appeared to be in some kind of a trance and his friend got quite alarmed at his antics, believing him to be ill. When Tesla finally calmed down he said, “No, you do not understand. I have solved the problem of my alternating-current motor.” He then explained how he could see the whole concept in front of him, as if in a vision.
A rotating magnetic field which would clutch the armature of a motor with invisible fingers and cause it to rotate in harmony with it. A concept sublime in its simplicity. There and then, he drew a diagram of his motor in the snow to show his friend the technical aspects of his invention. This moment was the beginning of man’s leap forward in the industrialization of the world. It was soon after this that Tesla was offered a position with the Continental Edison Company and spent much of his time improving the designs of the Edison direct-current motors.
He also invented a system for automatically regulating the dynamos. He had been promised a substantial fee for all the new innovations he had produced for the company, and when this was not forthcoming on demand, he immediately resigned. If the payment had been made at the time, Tesla would possibly have remained with the company and they would have benefited immensely from his genius.
It was suggested by a member of the company that Tesla should emigrate to the United States and work with Edison himself. There were not many opportunities left open to him in Europe, so in 1884 the young Tesla arrived in New York with four cents in his pocket and a mind bursting with new ideas. At this stage he had already worked out the whole alternating-current electrical system in his mind. This included step-up and step-down transformers for the most economical transmission of electric power, alternators, and alternating-current motors to supply mechanical power.
When he finally met the famous Edison, he gave him an enthusiastic description of his alternating current system, only to be told that he was “wasting his time messing around with such things. Edison was committed to the direct-current system and would not be swayed by the arguments put forth by Tesla. The whole of the Edison empire was built on the premise that direct current was superior to alternating current.
He spent almost a year working for Edison, again improving and inventing new techniques for the production of the Edison dynamos Promises had been made to him, for the second time to repay him adequately for his services. It is said that Edison had undertaken to pay $50,000 to Tesla when all the improvements were completed and the machines ready for production. When the time came for settlement, Edison treated the whole thing as a joke, so the disillusioned Tesla once again resigned.
It was now 1885. The fortune he was seeking in the promised land was not to come easily. He spent a year taking any menial job he could find just to keep himself alive. At one stage he even resorted to digging ditches. The foreman on the ditch-digging project was fascinated by the visionary descriptions of the new electrical innovations that Tesla related to him, and introduced him to as executive of the company named A. K. Brown. This man had enough faith to finance an experimental laboratory at 33-35 South Fifth Avenue, New York.
Tesla set to work and in a short time had a complete demonstration of his system ready for assessment. Included were alternating current generators, motors, transformers, transmission lines and lights. After examination by Professor W. A. Anthony of Cornell University, it was announced that the Tesla system was equal is efficiency to any of the best direct-current machines then in production. In 1887 Tesla applied for full patent rights for all of his electrical inventions. This was not approved by the patent office as the considered a single patent to cover such a great array of ideas was too unwieldy. They insisted that each important section be covered by a separate patent. Within the next six months seven USA patents were granted, and in 1888 twenty-two more were to follow.
The Institute of Electrical Engineers were now aware of this genius among them and invited Tesla to give a demonstration lecture on his alternating-current system in New York. This was a tremendous success. It was now recognized by the engineers of the world that there need be no limit to the transmission of power over long distances. The way was now open to develop the whole industry beyond men’s wildest dreams.
Tesla was thirty-two when he was approached by George Westinghouse, who offered him one million dollars for all his alternating current patents, plus certain royalties. Tesla agreed, on the proviso that the royalty was to be one dollar per horsepower. Although this royalty was later withdrawn because of financial difficulties in the Westinghouse empire, a bond of mutual trust remained between these two great men for the rest of their lives. Tesla, at last, was being given the credit he deserved. America was his to conquer.
The General Electric Company, founded by the Edison interests, saw the writing on the wall and for their very survival had to negotiate a license from Westinghouse to compete in the rapidly expanding electrical industry being built on the concepts of alternating current. No future remained for those who thought in terms of direct current only.
In 1890 the scientist Lord Kelvin was appointed chairman of the International Niagara Commission set up to determine the most efficient way of using the force of Niagara Falls to generate electricity. In 1892 Westinghouse won the contract for the Installation of the 5000-horsepower hydro-electric generators. The transmission system was contracted to the General Electric Company. The whole complex was designed according to the ideas of Tesla. The massive alternators with external revolving fields and internal stationary armatures were personally designed by him; the transmission line including the step-up and step-down transformers was constructed to Tesla’s two-phase concept. His childhood dream had been fulfilled — he had harnessed the power of Niagara Falls.
Now in his early thirties Tesla was a wealthy man and felt free he devote more of his time to pure research. Throughout his life he give no indication of any type of business sense. The mere making of money was never a primary object with him, and as long as he had the necessary funds to buy all the equipment he needed for his experiments he was happy. His whole makeup was that of the discoverer.
He was at one with the environment itself and had a compelling, restless urge to pry all the secrets from nature and harness them, in order to help his fellow man progress towards higher level of being. He had a vision of the cosmos as consisting of myriad octaves of electrical vibration. It was his desire to be able to understand the interplay of harmonic oscillations that formed the basis of the universe. The lower octaves he had already explored with his 60 cycle per second alternating current. He was now read to reach into the unknown and probe into the regions of ultra high frequency of light and beyond.
For these experiments he constructed a great range of electrical oscillators to produce high-frequency currents, and coils tuned to set frequencies or wavelengths in order to discover the characteristic of each energy level and the particular uses to which each could be applied. He found that the interlocking harmonics were similar to the musical scale and that his coils responded not only to the transmissions of the original waveforms, but resonated at harmonic intervals above and below the original frequency. He had discovered the harmonic nature of matter.
He felt ready to take the next step in the practical application of his theoretical discoveries. During an interview in 1894 he said:
You will think me a dreamer and very far gone if I should tell you what I really hope for. But I can tell you that I look forward with absolute confidence to sending messages through the earth without any wires. I have also great hopes of transmitting electrical force in the same way without waste. Concerning the transmission of messages through the earth I have no hesitation in predicting success: I must first ascertain exactly how many vibrations to the second are caused by disturbing the mass of electricity which the earth contains. My machine for transmitting must vibrate as often to put itself in accord with the electricity in the earth.
He had previously addressed a meeting of the National Electric Light Association and had said, in part:
I am becoming more and more convinced of the scheme, and though I know full well that the great majority of scientific men will not believe that such results can be practically and immediately realized, yet I think that all consider the developments in recent years by a number of workers to have been such as to encourage thought and experiment in this direction. My conviction has grown so strong that I no longer look upon the plan of energy or intelligence transmission as a mere theoretical possibility, but as a serious problem to electrical engineering, which must be carried out some day…
We now know that electrical vibrations may be transmitted through a single conductor. Why then not try to avail ourselves of the earth for this purpose? We need not be frightened of the idea of distance. To the weary wanderer counting the mile posts, the earth may appear very large; but to the happiest of all men, the astronomer, who gazes at the heavens, and by their standards judges the magnitude of our globe, it appears very small.
And so I think it must seem to the electrician; for when he considers the speed with which an electrical disturbance is propagated through the earth, all his ideas of distance must completely vanish. A point of great importance would be first to know what is the capacity of the earth, and what charge does it contain if electrified. Though we have no evidence of a charged body existing in space without other oppositely electrified bodies being near, there is a fair probability that the earth is such a body, for whatever process it was separated — and this is the accepted view of its origin — it must have retained a charge, as occurs in all processes of mechanical separation.
If we can ever ascertain at what period the earth’s charge, when disturbed, oscillates, with respect to an oppositely charged system, or known circuit, we shall know a fact possible of the greatest importance to the welfare of the human race. I propose to seek the period by means of an electrical oscillator, or a source of alternating currents.
One of the terminals of this source would be connected to the earth, as, for instance, the city water mains, the other to an insulated body of large surface. It is possible that the outer conducting air strata, or free space, contain an opposite charge, and that, together with the earth, they form a condenser of large capacity. In such case the period of vibration may be very low and an alternating dynamo machine might serve for the purpose of the experiment. I would then transform the current to a potential as high as it would be found possible, and connect the ends of the high tension secondary coil to the ground and to the insulated body.
By varying the frequency of the currents and carefully observing the potential of the insulated body, and watching for the disturbance at various neighboring points of the earth’s surface, resonance might be detected. For the experiments, Tesla chose a site on the outskirts of the town of Colorado Springs, Colorado. To the present day it has been thought that he selected this particular area just out of pure convenience. It was said that he was attracted by the dryness of the air which made it an excellent position for electrical experiment (violent electrical storms were common in the mountainous terrain around Colorado Springs and nearby Pikes Peak).
But I believe this was not his prime reason, as will be demonstrated. A large barn-shaped structure was built on the site to Tesla’s specifications. It was just on 100 feet square, with sides twenty-five feet high. The roof then sloped upward to a high peak in the centre A pyramid-shaped tower extended upward from the centre peak for a height of about eighty feet through which a mast was supported reaching to a height of around 200 feet. On top of the mast was a copper ball three feet in diameter. A heavy duty wire was run from this copper ball down the mast, then connected to the large secondary coil of the electrical apparatus in the shed.
Power, which was supplied by a generator from the Colorado Springs Electric Power Company a few miles away, was fed into transformer system and stepped up to around 30,000 volts. This was then fed into a condenser. When the condenser reached capacity it discharged into a coil. This provided a continually oscillating high-frequency current. The primary coil was constructed of heavy wire on a circular fence like arrangement about seventy-five feet in diameter. At the centre, the secondary coil, about ten feet in diameter, was wound with approximately seventy-five turns on a frame ten feet high. This inner coil was attached to a copper plate buried deep in the ground at one end and the other end connected to the copper ball at the top of the mast. The two coils were tuned perfectly with each other and created electrical resonances in the order of 100 million volts.
The whole system acted as a gigantic electrical pump, and enabled Tesla to cause massive discharges of energy to oscillate between the earth and the surrounding atmosphere. During his experiments with this fantastic piece of equipment he caused huge bolts of lightning to issue forth from the copper ball into the air, and manmade thunder to scare the living daylights out of the populace for miles around. He finally succeeded in burning out the generating plant at Colorado Springs due to the electrical overload placed upon it. This did not, of course, make him too popular with the local council, and he had to carry out extensive repairs to the plant before he was able to continue with his work.
He discovered that a rate of 150,000 oscillations a second, which produced electrical pulsations with a wavelength of 2000 meters, was necessary to produce the effects he required in the transmission of usable power through the earth.
If we convert the wavelength of 2000 meters to a minute of arc, or nautical mile equivalent on the earth’s surface the result is 1.0792237. The experimental value was therefore very close to 1.08 minutes of arc, or one twenty thousandth of the circumference of the earth. 21600 minutes divided by 1.08.
The exact number of cycles to obtain a 1.08 minute wavelength would be 149892.18 per second. This would tune the transmitter in harmony with the world grid system.
In the early stages of my work I wondered why I could not obtain pure harmonics from all my calculations when dealing with physical substance — that is, exactly 144 for the light harmonic etc. Tesla stated that it was not possible to obtain pure resonance or harmonic vibrations, because if this were so then matter itself would disintegrate. A certain amount of resistance must be allowed for to prevent complete destruction of physical substance. He tested his theory of power transmission by lighting 200 incandescent lamps at a distance of twenty-six miles from the laboratory while the giant oscillator was operating — the energy being extracted directly from the earth. Each lamp required about 50 watts of power — a total of 13hp. The claimed efficiency was 95 percent.
The Century Magazine ran an article in the June edition of 1900 stating comments made by Tesla regarding his Colorado experiments:
“However extraordinary the results shown may appear, they are but trifling compared with those obtainable by apparatus designed on these same principles. I have produced electrical discharges the actual path of which, from end to end, was probably more than 100 feet long; but it would not be difficult to reach lengths 100 times as great. I have produced electrical movements occurring at the rate of approximately 100,000 horsepower, but rates of one, five or ten million horsepower are easily practicable. In these experiments, effects were developed incomparably greater than ever produced by any human agencies and yet these results are but an embryo of what is to be.”
Tesla now had all the information he required to set up a station to transmit power to any point in the world, but before we move on to discuss his later activities let us have a closer look at the site he chose in Colorado where he tested all his theories and found positive proof of the harmonic structure of nature. In one of his unpublished articles he had stated in part that:
“Long ago he (man) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of a tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the Akasha or Luminiferous Ether, which is acted upon by the life-giving prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never-ending cycles, all things and phenomena. THE PRIMARY SUBSTANCE, THROWN INTO INFINITESIMAL WHIRLS OF PRODIGIOUS VELOCITY, BECOMES GROSS MATTER; THE FORCE SUBSIDING. THE MOTION CEASES AND MATTER DISAPPEARS, REVERTING TO THE PRIMARY SUBSTANCE.”
His experiments had shown him (as I had found in my own bumbling way) that matter was nothing more than a complex matrix of wave-forms locked together by harmonic resonance. The energy inherent in matter could be tapped if the secret of the geometric structure of the wave-forms could be broken. It appears that, by calculation, he had found that to tune in, so to speak, to this energy ball we call earth, he had to set up his apparatus on a particular point on its surface to ensure that the waves he proposed to transmit were in step with the natural medium.
Colorado Springs was one of the ideal positions which was accessible to him. The position of Colorado Springs is given as 38 degrees 50 minutes North latitude and 104 degrees 50 minutes West longitude. Calculations which have been carried out recently for this arcs show that a theoretical position of 38° 49’ 31.629” North latitude and 104° 52’ 22” West longitude would be the ideal position to set up a Tesla type experiment.
The exact positions where Tesla built his transmitter is unknown to me, but I believe it was not too far from the theoretical one.
During my years of research I have discovered that some of the scientific establishments have been positioned in such a way that the latitude value sets up a harmonic due to the relative distance from the Equator and the North or South Pole. Also I have found that there are harmonic intervals above and below the normal units of degrees, minutes and seconds in circular measure. Division or multiplication is carried out by the harmonic value of 6.
So: for the theoretical latitude position we have:
Distance to the North Pole = 51.174548 degrees
Distance from the equator = 38.825453 degrees
Difference = 12.349095 degrees
Divided by 6 = 2.0581825 units
Multiplied by 2 = 4.116365 units
Squared = 16.9444 units
The harmonic 169444 is related to MASS, GRAVITY and COMMUNICATION and is demonstrated many times in my later works. The method of calculation also follows a regular pattern. The great circle displacement between longitude 104° 52’ 22” west and 90° 00’ 00” west, at the same latitude, also sets up an important harmonic. The value: 694.44 minutes of arc. This is the reciprocal harmonic of the Grid speed of light, 144000 minutes of arc per Grid second, in free space.
Tesla must have been well aware of the importance of the position he chose, but kept the reasons a closely guarded secret. It is interesting to note that in this same area the military have chosen to set up the greatest electrical complex in the world — the North American Defense Command, NORAD. I am not telling tales out of school here because other publications have already pointed this fact out.
The caption on a photo of the command post, in publication which I have, free to any of the public who wish to buy one, states:
“The main battle staff position in the combat operations centre (COC) at headquarters North American Defense Command (NORAD), Colorado Springs, Colorado, fronts a display area which allows observers to see the positions of airborne objects thousands of miles away. NORAD (COC) is hooked to all of NORAD’s subordinate units and to every major command post on the continent. I am sure the Russians are also fully aware of the significance of this position and that they have similar military command posts set up on the Russian continent, so I am not releasing anything that could in the remotest sense be termed a military secret. From a public point of view though, one of the reasons becomes clear why the work and discoveries of Tesla remain suppressed: the military application of his discoveries has been considered far more important ant than the welfare of the ordinary citizen of the world.
Tesla was now ready to build his world power system. With a cash grant of $150,000 donated by the banker J.P. Morgan he was able to commence construction of his world wireless power and broadcasting station.
The site he picked for this station was to be on a tract of land owned by James S. Warden, a lawyer and banker. This was at Shoreham, in Suffolk County, Long Island. Tesla’s idea was to create a radio city from which information would be broadcast on all wavelengths. I find once more that far better than my own inadequate description of the system, the reported words of Tesla himself give more of an idea of the magnitude of the enterprise:
The world system has resulted from a combination of several original discoveries made by the inventor in the course of long continued research and experimentation. It makes possible not only the instantaneous and precise wireless transmission of any kind of signals, messages or characters to all parts of the world, but also the interconnection of the existing telegraph, telephone and other signal stations without any change in their present equipment.
By its means for instance, a telephone subscriber here may call up any other subscriber on the globe. An inexpensive receiver, not bigger than a watch, will enable him to listen anywhere on land or sea to a speech delivered, or music played, in some other place, however distant. These examples are cited merely to give an idea of the possibilities of this great scientific advance, which annihilates distance and makes that perfect conductor, the earth, available for all the innumerable purposes which human ingenuity has found for a line wire.
One far-reaching result of this is that any device capable of being operated through one or more wires (at a distance obviously restricted) can like wise be activated, without artificial conductors, and with the same facility and accuracy, at distances to which there are no limits other than those imposed by the physical dimensions of the globe. Thus, not only will entirely new fields for commercial exploitation be opened up by this ideal method of transmission, but the old ones vastly extended.
The world system is based on the application of the following important inventions and discoveries.
1. The Tesla Transformer: This apparatus is in the production of electrical vibrations, as revolutionary as gunpowder was in war-fare. Currents many times stronger than any ever generated in the usual ways, and sparks over 100 feet long, have been produced by the inventor with an instrument of this kind.
2. The Magnifying Transmitter: This is Tesla’s best invention — a peculiar transformer specially adapted to excite the earth, which is, in the transmission of electrical energy, what the telescope is in astronomical observation. By the use of this marvelous device he has already set up electrical movements of greater intensity than those of lightning, and passed a current sufficient to light more than 200 incandescent lamps around the globe.
3. The Tesla Wireless System: This system comprises a number of improvements and is the only means known for transmit-ting, economically, electrical energy to a distance without wires. Careful test and measurements in connection with an experimental station of great activity, erected by the inventor in Colorado, have demonstrated that power in any desired amount can be conveyed clear across the globe if necessary, with a loss not exceeding a few per cent.
4. The Art of Individualization: This invention of Tesla, is to primitive tuning what refined language is to inarticulated expression. It makes possible the transmission of signals or messages absolutely secret and exclusive both in active and passive aspect, that is, non-interfering as well as non-interferable. Each signal is like an individual of unmistakable identity and there is virtually no limit to the number of stations or instruments that can be simultaneously operated without the slightest mutual disturbance.
5. The Terrestrial Stationary Waves: This wonderful discovery, popularly explained, means that the earth is responsive to electrical vibrations of definite pitch, just as a tuning fork is to certain waves of sound. These particular electrical vibrations, capable of powerfully exciting the globe, lend themselves to innumerable uses of great importance commercially and in many other respects.
The first world system power plant can be put in operation in nine months. With this power plant it will be practical to attain electrical activities up to ten million horsepower and it is designed to serve for as many technical achievements as are possible without undue expense. Among these the following may be mentioned:
1. Interconnection of the existing telegraph exchanges or offices all over the world.
2. Establishment of a secret and non-interferable Government telegraph service.
3. Interconnection of all the present telephone exchanges or offices all over the globe.
4. Universal distribution of general news, by telegraph or telephone, in connection with the press.
5. The establishment of a world system of intelligence transmission for exclusive private use.
6. Interconnection and operation of all stock tickers of the world
7. Establishment of a world system of musical distribution, etc.
8. Universal registration of time by cheap clocks indicating the time with astronomical precision and requiring no attention whatever.
9. Facsimile transmission of type or handwritten characters, letters, cheques etc.
10. Establishment of a universal marine service enabling navigators of all ships to steer perfectly without compass, to determine the exact location, hour and speed, to prevent collisions and disasters etc.
11. Inauguration of a system of world printing on land or sea
12. Reproduction anywhere in the world of photographic picture and all kinds of drawings or records.
The complex that Tesla planned to build on Long Island to bring all this to fruition was at that time like something out of some science-fiction drama. The tower for the transmitter was constructed on a wide circular base from strong wooden beams, with all the necessary metal fittings produced from copper. It tapered toward the top and rose to a height of 154 feet. Surmounted upon this was a colossal hemispherical structure to form the electrode.
The skeleton of this was also formed from wood and was to be sheathed in copper. Not far from the base of the tower was a large brick building designed to house all the intricate machinery necessary to generate the massive amount of power required to run the station. Most of the equipment was of special design and Tesla had a great deal of trouble in having some of it manufactured. By 1902 the tower and the control building were completed.
Soon after this everything started to go wrong for Tesla. He had trouble getting supplies of equipment he required and the financial hackers, who up till then had been highly enthusiastic about the project, withdrew their support. The whole project crashed. A plan that Tesla had for creating a similar station at Niagara Falls for Canadian interests was also abandoned. He never fully recovered from this setback. He was never again to receive the money he needed to carry out large-scale experiments.
The reasons for this were, and still are, veiled in mystery, and in 1943 he died alone, in a hotel room in New York, a poor and almost forgotten man.
This small resume of the life of Nicola Tesla does not give anything like the coverage of his achievement that it deserves. A large volume would have to be written to do anything like justice to this electrical genius who spent his life trying to give his fellow men a basis for a new and wonderful world. Why was he stopped? Would the dreams of a universal power system have allowed the poorer nations to advance too quickly? Could it be that the large international companies would have found it difficult to control such a system?
Many questions — but no answers. I only hope that the students of the future will take time to study the works of Nicola Tesla and one day endeavor to complete his dream. The reason for the location of the transmitter of the world power system at Wardenclyffe, in the Shoreham area of Long Island, would also have been because of the geometries involved. If the station were to operate at maximum efficiency, it had to be set up in a position that ensured the propagation of the electromagnetic-wave-forms was in perfect harmony with the atomic structure of the Earth. The electrons in every atom of every element had to be resonated in order to transmit the energy being imparted.
During the first world war the Wardencliffe Tower was dynamited for some obscure reason, and most traces of Tesla’s activity in the area completely obliterated.
At the time of writing the initial draft for this chapter I was unable to find the exact location of the tower site, because of the scanty records left behind for public viewing.
I did publish a theoretical position in my earlier works which showed a series of harmonics but was never really satisfied with the results. One of my readers in England decided to help me with the problem and wrote to a friend of his who lives on Long Island asking if it were possible to pin-point the site. He sent the results of his query on to me and I quote a section of his letter:
“I mentioned to my friend that you were unable to locate the site of Tesla’s Tower. Well this produced an unexpected reaction from my friend because it is just around the corner from where she lives in the grounds of the Peerless Company. In fact the road that runs on the other side of the boundary fence, 50 yards from the octagonal concrete base, is called Tesla Street.
Peerless replied that according to the highways department (presumably Suffolk County) the coordinates are as follows:
40° 56’ 50.3” north/ 72° 53’ 55.6” west.”
At last a position was available for study, although I have not been able to check the accuracy. If any reader can supply more information, I would be most grateful.
Computer calculations indicated that Tesla was in possession of knowledge far in advance of his time. If the position of the transmitter was near correct then the geometric placement was directly related to the unified equations discovered in my work on the world grid system.
The great circle displacement from the transmitter to a point of longitude 180° 00’ 00” at the same latitude, was:
269375.57 seconds of arc.
This was extremely close to the energy harmonic derived from the unified equation in relation to the speed of light at the Earth’s surface, found in my latest research.
The difference of around eleven seconds of arc would give as error of about 800 feet, which is not too bad for normal map reference. See Diagram. The longitudinal placement indicated that Tesla had chose a position harmonically tuned to the reciprocal of the Greenwich meridian. An article published in the “Arizona Republic” on Sunday, September 2, 1984, regarding Tesla’s experiments, contained some interesting information, which showed a relationship with grid harmonics.
With a pocket sized vibrator, he told reporters, he could generate resonant tremors that could split the Earth in two. He gave its resonance frequency as one hour and 49 minutes. Whatever the plausibility of his Earth-splitting scheme, the rather precise estimate of the Earth’s frequency turned out to be close to the mark, as was demonstrated during the great Chilean earthquake of 1960, when geophysicists were able to measure the time it took waves to travel back and forth through the Earth.
I wondered just what time base the Earth frequency was based on and after several calculations discovered that it was related directly with the yearly cycle of the Earth round the Sun of 365.25 days.
One Earth year = 365.25 days
= 8766 hours
One hour 49 minutes = 1.8166 hour
8766 divided by 1.8166 = 4825.3211
Square root of 4825.32 = 69.464
In grid terms the reciprocal harmonic of the speed of light (144,000 minutes of arc per grid second, in free space, relative to the Earth’s surface) is 69444444.
If we work backwards from this harmonic value, then:
69.444444 squared = 4822.5308
8766 divided by 4822.5308 = 1.8177178
1.8177178 hours = One hour 49 minutes
The results are so close that I would venture to say that the resonant frequency of the Earth is directly related to the speed of light.
Another interesting point that I believe we should note is that Tesla insisted that 60 cycles a second would be the most efficient frequency to use in all the alternators and motors produced from his patents. There was much opposition to this from the manufactured and practical men in the field, but Tesla won his point and, to this day, 60 cycles a second is the frequency used in alternating-current transmission.
Why? It has been found that one of the basic natural frequencies of the Earth is six cycles per second. Tesla picked a harmonic of 6 which would be the most practical.